PAT-Advanced-1067. Sort with Swap(0,*)

Given any permutation of the numbers {0, 1, 2,…, N-1}, it is easy to sort them in increasing order. But what if Swap(0, *) is the ONLY operation that is allowed to use? For example, to sort {4, 0, 2, 1, 3} we may apply the swap operations in the following way:

Swap(0, 1) => {4, 1, 2, 0, 3}
Swap(0, 3) => {4, 1, 2, 3, 0}
Swap(0, 4) => {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

Now you are asked to find the minimum number of swaps need to sort the given permutation of the first N nonnegative integers.

Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case, which gives a positive N (<=105) followed by a permutation sequence of {0, 1, …, N-1}. All the numbers in a line are separated by a space.

Output Specification:

For each case, simply print in a line the minimum number of swaps need to sort the given permutation.

Sample Input:

Sample Output:

与2015-2016秋冬学期PTA的Bonus 1一致。

代码如下:

 

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